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Old and New Edinburgh Vol. IV


290 OLD AND NEW EDINBURGH. me Old High Schaol? display the dresses so used should be given to the poor.? For many years the history of the school is little more than a biographical list of the various masters and teachers. A fifth class was established in I 614 for the rudiments of Greek during the rectorship of John Ray (the friend of Zachary Boyd), who after being Professor of Humanity in the university for eight years, regarded it promotion to leave it to take full charge of the High School ; and when he died, in February, 1630, his office was again conferred upon a Professor of Humanity, Thomas Crawford, who figured prominently amid the pageants with which Charles I. was welcomed to the city in 1633, and with Hawthornden and others composed and delivered some of the bombastic speeches on that occasion. In his time the number of pupils fluctuated greatly ; he complained to the Council that though they had led him to expect ? 400 bairns at the least,? he had only 180 when he began office. But there is no authentic record of attendance at that early period ; and it is curious that the abstract of the annual enrolment of scholars goes no farther back than the Session of 1738-9, while a general matriculation register was not commenced till 1827. In December, 1640, Crawford returned to the university, and was succeeded by William Spence, schoolmaster of Prestonpans ; but to give all the successive masters of the institution would far exceed our space. The masters and scholars had very indifferent accommodation during the invasion of Cromwell after Dunbar. His troops made a barrack of the school-house, and while there broke and burned all the woodwork, leaving it in such a state of ruin that the pupils had to meet in Lady Yester?s Church till it was repaired by funds drawn from the masters of the Trinity Hospital at the foot of Leith Wynd. A library for the benefit of the institution was added to it in 1658, and it now consists of many thousand volumes. Among the first donors of books were John Muir the rector, all the masters, Patrick Scott of Thirlstane, and John Lord Swinton of that ilk. At present it is sup ported by the appropriation of one half of the n?iatriculation fund to its use, and every way it is a valuable classical, historical, geographical, and antiquarian collection. The rector and masters, with the assistance of the janitor, discharge in rotation the duties of librarian. Ap old periodical source of income deserves to be noticed. In 1660, on the 20th January, the Town Council ordered ? the casualty called the b(rir-iZve? to be withheld until the 1st of March. This was a gratuity presented to the masters by their pupils at Candlemas, and he who gave the most was named the King. ? Bleis? being the Scottish word for blaze, the origin of the gratuity must have been a Candlemas offering for the lights and candles anciently in use ; moreover, the day was a holiday, when the boys appeared in their best apparel accompanied by their parents. The roll was then called over, and each boy presented his offering. When the latter was less than the quarterly fee no notice was taken of it, but if it amounted to that sum the rector exclaimed with a loud voice, Vivat; to twice the ordinary fee, FZoreai bis; for a higher sum, Fioreaf ter; for a guinea and upwards, Gloriat! The highest donor was named the fictor, or King. The Council repeatedly issued injunctions against the levy of any ?&is-syZver, or BentsyZver,? but apparently in vain. The latter referred to the money for collecting bent, or rushes, to lay down on the clay floor to keep the feet warm and dry; and so latelyas the commencement of the seventeenth century, during the summer season, the pupils had leave to go forth with hooks to cut bent by the margins of Duddingston and the Burgh lochs, or elsewhere. ?Happily,? says Steven, of a later date, ? all exactions are now unknown ; and at four regular periods in the course of each session, the teachers receive from their pupils a fixed fee, which is regarded as a fair remuneration for their professional labour.? In those days the pupils attended divine service, accompanied by their masters, and were frequently catechised before the congregation. A part of Lady Yester?s Church, was set apart for their use, and afterwards the eastern gallery of the Trinity College church. In 1680, the Privy Council issued a proclamation prohibiting all private Latin schools to be opened within the city or suburbs, and thus the High School enjoyed an almost undisturbed monopoly ; and sixteen years after, in the proceedings of the Town Council, we find the following enactment :- ?Edinbuqh, S@. 11, 1696.-The Council considering that the High School of this city being situate in a corner at some distance, many of the inhabitants, whose children are tender, being unwilling to expose them to. the cold winter mornings, and send them to the said school before the hour of seven, as use is ; therefore, the Council ordain the masters of the said school in all time coming, to meet and convene at nine of the clock in the morning during the winter season, viz., from the 1st of November to the 1st March yearly, and to teach the scholars till twelve, that which they were
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The Old High School.] RECTORS AND TEACHERS, 291 , in use to teach in those mornings and forenoons. And considering that the ordinary Latin rudiments in use to be taught children at their beginning to the Latin tongue is difficult and hard for beginners, and that Wedderburn?s Rudiments are more plain and easy, the Council ordain the said masters in time coming, to teach and begin their scholars with Wedderburn?s Rudiments in place of the Latin Rudiments in use as taught formerly. Ro. CHIESLIE, Provost.?? David Wedderburn, whose work is thus referred to, was born about 1570, and was the accomplished author of many learned works, and died, it is supposed, about 1644, soon after the publication of his ?? Centuria Tertia.? In 1699 A40 Scots was voted by the magistrates to procure books as a reward for the best scholars, and when the century closed the institution was in a most creditable condition, and they-as patrons -declared that ?? not a few persons that are now eminent for piety and learning, both in Church and State, had been educated there.? In the year I 7 I 6 there was an outbreak among the scholars for some reason now unknown ; but they seem to have conducted themselves in an outrageous manner, demolishing every pane of glass in the school, and also of Lady Yester?s church, levelling to the earth even the solid stone wall which enclosed the school-yard. About this time the janitor of the institution was David Malloch, a man distinguished in after life as author of the beautiful ballad of ? William and Margaret,? a poet and miscellaneous writer, and under-secretary to the Prince of Wales in 1733; to please the English ear, he changed his name to Mallet, and became an avowed infidel, and a venal author of the worst description. Dr. Steven refers to his receipt as being extant, dated 2nd February, 1718, ?for sixteen shillings and eight pence sterling, being his full salary for the preceding half-year. That was the exact period he held the office.? In 1736 we again hear of the BZeis-siher, cca profitable relic of popery, which it seemed difficult to relinquish.? Heartburnings had arisen because it had become doubtful in what way the Candlemas offerings should be apportioned between the rector and masters; thus, on the 28th January in that year, the Council resolved that the rector himself, and no other, shall collect, not only his own quarterly fees, but also the fee of one shilling from each scholar in the other classes. The Council also transferred the right from the master of the third, to the mzster of the first elementary class, to demand a shilling quarterly from each pupil in the rector?s class; and declared that the rector and four masters should favourably receive from the scholars themselves whatever benevolence or Candlemas offerings might be presented.? Thomas Ruddiman, the eminent grammarian and scholar, who was born at Boyndie in 1674 and who in 1724 began to vary his great literary undertakings by printing the ancient Cdedonian Mercqv, about I 737 established-together with the rector, the masters, and thirty-one other persons- a species of provident association for their own benefit and that of their widows and children, and adopting as the title of the society, ?The Company of the Professors and Teachers of the liberal arts and sciences, or any branch or part thereof, in the City of Edinburgh and dependencies thereof.? The co-partners were all taxed equally; but owing to inequalities in the yearly contributions, a dissolution nearly took place after an existence of fifty years; but the association rallied, and stcl exists in a flourishing condition. One of the most popular masters in the early part of the eighteenth century was Mr. James Barclay, who was appointed in June, 1742, and whose experience as a teacher, attainments, and character, caused him to be remembered by his scholars long after his removal to Dalkeith, where he died in 1765. When Henry Mackenzie, author of the ?? Man of Feeling,? was verging on his eightieth year, he contributed to Dr. Steven?s CL History,? his reminiscences of the school in his own early years, between 1752 and 1757, which we are tempted to quote at length :- ?Rector Lees, a very respectable, grave, and gentlemanlike man, father or uncle, I am not sure which, of Lees, the Secretary for Ireland. He maintained great dignity, treating the other masters somewhat de had a bar; severe, and rather too intolerant of dulness, but kind to more promising talents. It will not be thought vanity, I trust-for I speak with the sincerity and correctness of a third person-when I say that I was rather a favourite with him, and used for several years after he resigned his office to drink tea with him at his house in a large land or building at the country end of the suburb called Pleasance, built by one Hunter, a tailor, whence it got the name of ? Hunter?s Folly,? or the Castle 0? Clouts.? cc MAsrERs continued-Ersf, or youngest class, when I was put to school, Farquhar, a native of Banffshire, cousin-german of Farquhar, author of admired-and indeed t h q may be called admirable- sermons, and of Mr. Farquhar, the Vicar of Hayes, a sort of Parson Adams,? a favourite ot
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