414 MEMORIALS OF EDINBURGH. the Earl of Hertford in 1544. No other evidence, however, exists in support of this than the general inference deducible from the burning of Leith by the English, immediately before their embarkation ; a procedure which, unless accompanied by more violent modes of destruction, must have left the remainder of the church in the same condition as the nave which still exists. Such evidence as may still be gleaned from contemporary writers leaves little reason to doubt that it was not demolished until the siege of Leith in 1560, when it was subjected to much more destructive operations than the invaders’ torch. It stood directly exposed to the fire of the English batteries, cast up on the neighbouring downs, and of which some remains are still left.‘ “In thia meintyme,” says Bishop Lesley, “the Inglismen lying encamped upoun the south est syd of the tom, besyd Mount Pellam, schot many gret schottis of cannonis and gret ordinances, at the parrishe Kirk of Leyth, and Sanct Anthoneis steple, quhilk was fortefiit with mounted artailyerie thairupoun be the Frenchmen, and brak doun the same.”2 An anonymous historian of the same period relates still more explicitly :-‘‘ The 15th of Aprill, the fort wes cast and performed, scituate upon the clay-hills, east from the Kirk of Leith, about twoe fflight shott; where the greate ordinance being placed, they beganne to shoote at St Antonyes steeple in Leith, upon the which steeple the Frenchmen had mounted some artillerie, which wes verie noifiome to the campe ; bot within few howers after, the said steeple was broken and shott downe, likewise they shott dome some part of the east end of the Kirk of Leith.’” St Mary’s Church, as it existed at the time our drawing was made, showed at the east end two of the four great central pillars of the Church, and was otherwise finished by constructing a window in the upper part of the west arch of the central tower, much in the same style as was adopted in converting the nave of Holyrood Abbey into a parish church. The date 1614, which was cut on the east gable, probably marked the period at which the ruins of the choir were entirely cleared away. The side aisles appear for the most part to be the work of the same period. A range of five dormer windows was constructed at that date above both the centre and side aisles, and though a novel addition to a Gothic Church, must have had a very picturesque and rich effect. The whole of these, with the exception of the two western ones on the south side of the Church, were taken down in 1747,” and the remaining ones were demolished in 1847, along with the east and west gables of the Church, and, in fact, nearly every feature that was worth preserving ; the architect having, with the perverse ingenuity of modern restorers, preserved only the more recent and least attractive portions of -the venerable edifice. As some slight atonement for this, the removal of the high-pitched roof of the side aisles has brought to light a range of very neat square-headed clerestory windows, which had remained concealed for upwards of two centuries, and which it is fortunately intended to retain in the restoration of the building. The only other ancient parish church that remains to be noticed is that of St Cuthbert. Its parish appears to have been one of the earliest and most extensive districts set apart as a parochial charge. ‘( The Church of St Cuthbert,” says Chalmers, (‘ is unquestionably ancient, perhaps aa old as the age which followed the demise of the worthy Cuthbert, towards the end of the seventh century.” It was enriched by important grants, and parti- Ante, p. 66. ’ A Hietorie of the Estate of Scotland, Wodrow Misc., vol. i. p. 84. Lesley, p. 285. + Maitland, p. 494.