222 MEMORIALS OF EDINBURGH. to that portion extending from the Nether Bow to Creech’s Land, until the demolition of the middle row, when the Luckenbooths, and even a portion of the Lawnmarket, were assumed as part of it, and designated by the same name. Here was the battlefield of ScGtland for centuries, whereon private and party feuds, the jealousies of the nobles and burghers, and not a few of the contests between the Crown and the people, were settled at the point of the sword. In the year 1515 it was the scene of the bloody fray known by the name of “ Uleanse the Causey,” which did not terminate until t,he narrow field of contest waa strewn with the dead bodies of the combatants, and the Earl of Arran and Cardinal Beaton narrowly escaped with their lives.’ Other and scarcely less bloody affrays occurred during the reign of James V. on the same spot, while in that of his hapless daughter it was for years the chief scene of civil strife, where rival factions fought for mastery. In 1571 the King’s Parliament, summoned by the Regent Lennox, assembled at the head of the Canongate, above St John’s Cross, which bounded cc the freedome af Edinburgh,” while the Queen’s Parliament sat in the Tolbooth, countenanced in their assumption of the Royal name by the presence of the ancient Scottish Regalia, the honours of the kingdom; and the battle for Scotland‘s crown and liberties fiercely raged in the narrow space that intervened between these rival assemblies. But the private feuds of the Scottish nobles and chiefs were the most frequent subjects of conflict on the High Street of the capital, and during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries many a bold baron and hardy retainer perished there, adding fresh fuel to the deadly animosity of rival clans, but otherwise exciting no more notice at the time than an ordinary street squabble would now do. It was in one of these tulxies, alluded to in the ‘‘ Lay of the Last Minstrel,” that Sir Walter Scott of Buccleugh was slain, in the year 1551,’ When the streets of High Dunedin, Saw lances gleam and falchions redden, And heard the slogan’s deadly yell. Neither the accession of James VI., nor the attainment of his majority, exercised much influence in checking those encounters on the streets of the capital. Many enormities were committed,” says Calderwood, “ as if there had beene no King in Israell.” The following may suffice as a sample :-“ Upon the seventh of Januar 1591, the King comming doun the street of Edinburgh from the Tolbuith, the Duke of Lennox, accompanied with the Lord Hume, following a little space behind, pulled out their swords, and invaded the Laird of Logie. The King fled into a closse-head, and incontinent retired to a Skinner’s booth, where it is said he shook for feare.”’ The sole consequence of this lawless act of violence was the exclusion of the chief actors from court for a short time; and only six days thereafter the Earl of Bothwell deliberately took by force out of the Tolbooth the chief witness in a case then pending before the court, at the very time that the King was Ante, p. 37. “In thia zeir all we8 at guid rest, exceptand the Laird of LCesfurde and Fernyhirst with thair complices dew Schir Walter Scott, laird of Balclewche, in Edinburgh, quha waa ane valzeand guid knycht.”-Diurnal of Occurrent~ J551, p. 51. a Vide Calderwood, vol. v. p. 116, for a more particular account .of royal mishaps in the close-head on thii occaeion.
THE HIGH STREET. 223 sitting in the same building along with the Lords of Session.’ Tbe unfortunate witness was dragged by his captors to Crichton Castle, and there schooled into a more satisfactory opinion of the case in question, under the terror of the gallows. The ancient Cross which stood in the High Street has been frequently alluded to, and some of the most remarkable events described of which it was the scene. It was alike the theatre of festivals and executions ; garnished at one period with rich hangings, and flowing with wine for the free use of the populace, and at another overshadowed by the Maiden, and hung only with the reversed armorial bearings of some noble victim of law or tyranny.’ In the year 1617 it was rebuilt on L new site in the High Street, apparently with the view of widening the approach preparatory to the arrival of Eing James, in fulfilment of his long-promised visit to his native city. The King sent word at that time of “hie natural1 and salmon-like affection, and earnest desire,” as he quaintly but very graphically expresses it, ( I to see his native and ancient kingdome of Scotland.” Accordingly, as Calderwood tells us in the very next sentence, (‘ Upon the 26th of Februar, the Crosse of Edinburgh was taken doun; the old long stone, about fortie foots or therby in length, was translated, by the devise of certane mariners in Leith, from the place where it stoode past memorie of man, to a place beneath in the Highe Streete, without anie harme to the stone ; and the bodie of the old Crosse was demolished and another buildit, whereupon the long stone or obelisk was erected and sett upon the 25th uf Marche.” The long stone must have suffered injury since, but the fine Gothic capital, of which we have already given a view, is without doubt a relic of the most ancient Cross demolished at this period. Among the older customs of which this interesting fabric was the scene, no one is more curious than the exposure of dyvours or bankrupts, a class of criminals at all times regarded with special indignation by their more fortunate fellow-citizens. The origin of this singular mode of protecting commercial credit is thus related in the Acts of Sederunt of the Court of Session for 1604 :-‘‘ The Lordis ordaine the Provest, Bailleis, and Counsrtle of Edinburgh, to cause big ane pillery of hewn stane, neir to the Mercat Croce of Edinburgh, upon the heid thereof ane sait and place to be maid, quhairupon, in tyme cuming, sall be se€ all dyvoris, wha sall sit thairon ane mercat day, from 10 hours in the morning 1 “Anent walpynnis in Buithis, Item, it is statute and ordanit be the Proveat, Railies, and Counsall of thia burgh, because of the greit slauchteris and utheris cummeris and tuleeia done in tyme bygane within the burgh, and apperendlie to be done gif na remeid be provydit thairto; and for eschewing thairof ;-that ilk manner of persone, merchandia, craftiamen, and all utheris occupyaris of buthis, or chalmeria in the hiegait, outher hey& or laych, that thay have lang valpynnis thairin, sic as hand ex, Jedburgh staif, hawart jawalyng, and siclyk lang valpynnis, with knaipschawis and jakkis ; and that thay cum thairwith to the hie-gait incontinent efter the commoun bell rynging.”-Burgh Records, Mar. 4, 1552. ’ “ Upone Tysday the nyntene day of Junij 1660, eftir sermond endit, the Magistrates and Counsell of Edinburgh, all in thair best robis, with a great number of the citizens, went to the Mercat Croce of Edinburgh, quhair a great long boord we8 covered with all soirtes of aweit meittis, and thair drank the kinges helth, and his brether; the spoutes of the Croce rynnand ill that tyme with abundance of clareyt wyne. Ther wer thrie hundreth dosane of glaseia all brokin and cassin throw the streitis, with sweit meitis in abundance,” &c,-Nicoll’s Diarp, p. 293. “ Upone the 13 day of Maij 1661, Sir Archibald Johnnestoun of Warystoun, lait Clerk Register, being forfalt in this Parliament, and being fugitive fra the lawis of this Kingdome, for his treasonable actis, he was first oppinlie declairit traitour in fam of Parliament, thaireftir, the Lord Lyon king at airmes, with four heraldia and sex trumpetteria, went to the Mercat Croce of Edinburgh, and thair maid publict intimation of his forfaltrie and treason, rave asunder his airmea, and trampled thame under thair feet, and kuist a number of thame over the Croce, and a5xt ane of thame upone the height of the great stane, to remayne thair to the publict view of all beholderia Thir airmes were croced bakward, his heid being put dounmest and his feet upmeat.”-Ibid, p. 332. Calderwood, vol. vii. p, ,243.