132 MEMORIALS OF EDINBURGH. defences of the tower were principally directed. The walls are here of very great thickness, and pierced by a square cavity in the solid mass, for the reception of a sliding beam to secure the door, while around it are the remains of various additional fortifications to protect the covered way. During the same operations, indications were discovered of a pathway up the cliff, partly by means of steps cut in the shelving rock, and probably completed by moveable ladders and a drawbridge communicating with the higher story of the Well-house Tower. About seventy feet above, there is a small building on an apparently inaccessible projection of the cl3, popularly known as ‘ I Wallace’s Cradle ” (an obvious corruption of the name of the tower below), which would seem to have formed a part of this access from the Castle to the ancient fountain at its base. In excavating near the tower, and especially in the neighbourhood of the sally port, various coins were found, chiefly those of Edward 111. and Cromwell, in very good preservation. There were also some foreign coins, and one of Edward I., many f r a p e n t s of bombshells, a shattered skull, and other indications of former warfare. The coins are now in the Antiquarian Museum, and are interesting from some of them being of a date considerably anterior to the supposed erection of the tower.a The ancient fortifications .of the town of Edinburgh, reared under the charter of James 11.) formed, at this part, in reality an advanced wall of the Castle, the charge of which was probably committed entirely to the garrison. The wall, after extending for a short way from the Well-house Tower, along the margin of the Loch, was carried up the Castle bank, and thence over the declivity on the south, until it again took an easterly direction towards the ancient Overbow Port, at the first turning of the West Bow, so that the whole of the Esplanade was separated from the town by this defence. There was in the highest part of the wall, a gate which served as a means of communication with the town by the Castle Hill, and was styled the Barrier Gate of the Castle. This outer port was temporarily restored for the reception of George IT., on his visit to the Castle in the year 1822, and it was again brought into requisition in 1832, in order completely to isolate the garrison, during the prevalence of Asiatic cholera. Previous to the enclosure and planting of the Castle bank and the bed of the ancient North Loch, the Esplanade was the principal promenade of the citizens, and a road led from the top of the bank, passing in an oblique direction down the north side, by the Well-house Tower, to St Cuthbert’s Church, some indications of which still remain. This church road had existed from a very early period, and is mentioned in the charter of . 1 The following extracts from the Diurnal of Occurrents, p. 332-3, in reference to the siege of the Castle by Sir William Drury in 1573 (ante, p. 84), embrace various interesting allusions to the local detail :- “ Wpoun the xxij day of Maij, the south quarter of the toure of the Castell, callit Dauid’s toure, fell through the vehement and continual1 achuting, togidder with some of the foir wall, and of the heid wall beayd Sanct Margaretia set. “ Wpoun the xxiiij day, the eist quarter of the said tour fell, with the north quarteris of the port cuheis ; the tour als callit Wallace tour, with some mair of the foir wall, notwithstanding the Castell men kust thair hand with schutting of small artailzerie. . . . . Wpoun the xxvj day, the hail1 cumpangis of Scotland and Ingland, being quietlie convenit at vij houris in the mornyng, passed with ledders, ane half to the blookhous, the vther half to Sanct Katherin’a eet, on the west syd, quhair the syid wea schote doun.” The Caatle vwa at length rendered by Sir William Kirkaldy on the 29th of the month. In Calderwood’s History, Wodrow Soc., vol. iii. 281, the followiug occurs, of the same date :-“Captain Nitchell waa layed with his band at Sanct Cuthbert’a Kirk, to atoppe the passage to St Margaret’a Well.” Also in “The Inventory of Royal Wardrobe,” dcc,, p. 168,-“1tem, am irne yet for Sanct Margareth’a t.o ur*, ”A &rcch. wlogia Scotica, vol. ii. pp. 469-477.